开首驾驭Android,使能notify蓝牙( Bluetooth® )低功耗设备

by admin on 2019年2月5日

星期三, 05. 九月 2018 02:03上午 – beautifulzzzz

Daydream

Key Terms And Concepts

home88一必发 1

android.bluttooth

一言九鼎术语和概念

Here is a summary of key BLE terms and concepts:
以下是有关BLE的紧要术语和定义的摘要

  • Generic Attribute Profile (GATT)—The GATT profile is a general
    specification for sending and receiving short pieces of data known
    as “attributes” over a BLE link. All current Low Energy application
    profiles are based on GATT.
    通用属性配置文件(GATT)–通用属性配置文件是一个由此BLE链接发送或收受短小一些数据或被喻为“属性”的通用标准。当前具备的低耗能应用配置文件都依据GATT。

    • The Bluetooth SIG defines many profiles for Low Energy devices.
      A profile is a specification for how a device works in a
      particular application. Note that a device can implement more
      than one profile. For example, a device could contain a heart
      rate monitor and a battery level detector.
    • 蓝牙5.0技术联盟为低耗电设备定义了不胜枚举专属文件。配置文件是一个在特定应用中配备怎么着行事的正式。请留心,一个设施可以完成多少个布局文件。例如:一个设备得以涵盖一个心跳检测器和一个电量检测器
  • Attribute Protocol (ATT)—GATT is built on top of the Attribute
    Protocol (ATT). This is also referred to as GATT/ATT. ATT is
    optimized to run on BLE devices. To this end, it uses as few bytes
    as possible. Each attribute is uniquely identified by a Universally
    Unique Identifier (UUID), which is a standardized 128-bit format for
    a string ID used to uniquely identify information. The attributes
    transported by ATT are formatted as characteristics and services.
    质量协议(ATT)——GATT建立在质量协议(ATT)之上。那也被叫作GATT/ATT。ATT经过优化,可在BLE设备上运行。为此,它应用尽可能少的字节。每个属性由通用唯一标识符(UUID)唯一标识,该标识符是用于唯一标识新闻的口径128-bit格式的字符串ID。由ATT传输的质量被格式化为特征和服务

  • Characteristic—A characteristic contains a single value and 0-n
    descriptors that describe the characteristic’s value. A
    characteristic can be thought of as a type, analogous to a class.
    特性——一个特性包括一个值和0至多少个描述特征的描述符。一个风味能够被认为是一种档次,类似于一个类。

  • Descriptor—Descriptors are defined attributes that describe a
    characteristic value. For example, a descriptor might specify a
    human-readable description, an acceptable range for a
    characteristic’s value, or a unit of measure that is specific to a
    characteristic’s value.
    讲述符——描述符是描述特征值的概念属性。例如:描述符也许可以指定一个生人可读的描述,特征值的可承受范围,或特征值特有的单位

  • Service—A service is a collection of characteristics. For example,
    you could have a service called “Heart Rate Monitor” that includes
    characteristics such as “heart rate measurement.” You can find a
    list of existing GATT-based profiles and services on
    bluetooth.org.
    服务——服务是一个表征的会聚。例如:你可以动用一个叫做“心跳检测器”的服务,其中囊括“心跳测量”等特性。你可以在bluetooth.org上找到一个早已存在的根据GATT的配备文件和服务的列表

1、前言

上一篇讲了何等编译安装BlueZ-5,本篇首要在于玩BlueZ,用命令行去操作BLE设备:

  • [BlueZ] 1、Download install and use the BlueZ and hcitool on PI
    3B+

home88一必发 2

Virtual
Reality High
Performance

提供管理蓝牙( Bluetooth® )功效的类,比如对设施的围观,连接装置,和保管设施之间的传输数据。蓝牙5.0API帮忙经典蓝牙5.0和低功耗Bluetooth。

Roles and Responsibilities

2、gatttool —— 老工具趟坑

刚起初接着 Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
操作gatttool,发现坑太多(主要缘由是工具老了):

采用sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I去连接
意识会报错:Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
末段参考LINK-11发现要求加random选项([\#1](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32947807/cannot-connect-to-ble-device-on-raspberry-pi))

➜  ~  sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> exit
➜  ~  sudo gatttool  -t random  -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Connection successful
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> 
(gatttool:3104): GLib-WARNING **: Invalid file descriptor.

过一遍会10S自行断开,网上说那个工具老了,不提出用了([\#2](https://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-bluetooth/msg67617.html)):

There are new tools to use with GATT, bluetoothctl/bluetoothd is the preferred since with that you have GAP, etc, 
but if want to use a stand alone tool then I suggest you use btgatt-client.

home88一必发 3

googlevr

Provides classes that manage Bluetooth functionality, such as scanning
for devices, connecting with devices, and managing data transfer between
devices. The Bluetooth API supports both “Classic Bluetooth” and
Bluetooth Low Energy.

角色和义务

Here are the roles and responsibilities that apply when an Android
device interacts with a BLE device:
此处是Android设备与BLE设备交互时适用的角色和职务:

  • Central vs. peripheral. This applies to the BLE connection itself.
    The device in the central role scans, looking for advertisement, and
    the device in the peripheral role makes the advertisement.
    焦点和外设。这适用于BLE连接本身。中心设备角色扫描,寻找广告,同时外角色设备创设广告。

  • GATT server vs. GATT client. This determines how two devices talk to
    each other once they’ve established the connection.
    GATT服务器和GATT客户端。那决定了五个装备建立连接之后怎么样通讯。

开首驾驭Android,使能notify蓝牙( Bluetooth® )低功耗设备。To understand the distinction, imagine that you have an Android phone
and an activity tracker that is a BLE device. The phone supports the
central role; the activity tracker supports the peripheral role (to
establish a BLE connection you need one of each—two things that only
support peripheral couldn’t talk to each other, nor could two things
that only support central).
为了知道那些特性,如果你拥有一个Android手机和一个BLE活动追踪器设备。手机担任主题角色;活动追踪器担任外设角色(为了成立BLE连接,你需求一些的如此的装备。只协助外设角色的八个设备不可能相互通讯,同样,仅协助宗旨角色的八个设施也不可能互相通讯)

Once the phone and the activity tracker have established a connection,
they start transferring GATT metadata to one another. Depending on the
kind of data they transfer, one or the other might act as the server.
For example, if the activity tracker wants to report sensor data to the
phone, it might make sense for the activity tracker to act as the
server. If the activity tracker wants to receive updates from the phone,
then it might make sense for the phone to act as the server.
手机和活动追踪器一旦确立了连接,他们就起头相互传输GATT元数据。依赖于他们传输的数额,其中的一个起来担任服务器。例如:假使移动跟踪器希望将传感器数据报告给手机,那么活动跟踪器可能会担任服务器。怎样运动追踪器想要从手机接收更新,那么手机可能会担任服务器。

In the example used in this document, the Android app (running on an
Android device) is the GATT client. The app gets data from the GATT
server, which is a BLE heart rate monitor that supports the Heart Rate
Profile. But you could alternatively design your Android app to play the
GATT server role. See BluetoothGattServer for more information.
其一文档中利用的例子中,Android
APP(运行在Android设备上)是GATT客户端。App从一个GATT服务器中获取数据,GATT服务器是一个提供心跳配置文件的BLE心跳检测器。可是你也得以设计你的安卓App充当GATT服务器的角色。有关详细音信,请查看BluetoothGattServer。

3、bluetoothctl——NB的新工具

一声令下行进入bluetoothctl操作环境([\#6](https://mcuoneclipse.com/2016/12/19/tutorial-ble-pairing-the-raspberry-pi-3-model-b-with-hexiwear/))

bluetoothctl

本人在手机上用lightblue模拟一个BLE设备ty_prod,之后对其service进行改动,调用scan
on举办查找仍然老的,
终极发现要先用remove移除从前的设备,之后再scan就会油不过生[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod设备
注: 用lightblue模拟的装备的MAC不是固定的
注:
我意识在lightblue中不管怎么模拟BLE设备,一旦被连上搜索到的service都是IPone的

[bluetooth]# devices
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ty_prod
Device 58:71:33:00:00:24 Bluetooth Keyboard
Device 00:1A:7D:DA:71:0A SHEN-PC
Device 94:87:E0:B3:AC:6F Mi Phone
[bluetooth]# remove 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 
...
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod
[bluetooth]# scan off
...
Discovery stopped
[bluetooth]# connect 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
Attempting to connect to 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
[CHG] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F Connected: yes
Connection successful
[ty_prod]

几乎就用三星手机自带的劳动做测试了~

[ty_prod]# info
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 (public)
    Name: tuya_mdev_test
    Alias: tuya_mdev_test
    Appearance: 0x0040
    Icon: phone
    Paired: yes
    Trusted: no
    Blocked: no
    Connected: yes
    LegacyPairing: no
    UUID: Fax                       (00001111-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Access Profile    (00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Attribute Profile (00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Current Time Service      (00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Device Information        (0000180a-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Battery Service           (0000180f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (7905f431-b5ce-4e99-a40f-4b1e122d00d0)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (89d3502b-0f36-433a-8ef4-c502ad55f8dc)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (9fa480e0-4967-4542-9390-d343dc5d04ae)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (d0611e78-bbb4-4591-a5f8-487910ae4366)
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no

大家用Current 提姆e Service,列出具有attributes操作如下:

[tuya_mdev_test]# menu gatt
[tuya_mdev_test]# list-attributes 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
...
Primary Service
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time Service
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0045
    00002a0f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Local Time Information
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
    00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time
Descriptor
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042/desc0044
    00002902-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Client Characteristic Configuration
...

上面Current Time Service对应的服务如下图:

home88一必发 4

大家挑选Current 提姆e进行操作UUID:0x2A2B

[ty_prod]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042 Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$....      
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$.... 
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Current Time
    UUID: 00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 2e 01 03 f5 02                    ..........      
    Notifying: yes
    Flags: read
    Flags: notify

读出结果大致意思应该是:2018-9/5-1:36:17 周三

读取一下0x180A的Device Information:

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0006/char0007]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Model Number String
    UUID: 00002a24-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047
    Flags: read
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a Value:
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2       
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2    

自然写、使能notify也很粗略,看help即可。最终断开连接、并脱离!!!

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# disconnect 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
Attempting to disconnect from 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
Successful disconnected
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no
[bluetooth]# quit

home88一必发 5

Google
VR for Android

关于很多别的的经典蓝牙5.0新闻。可以看蓝牙( Bluetooth® )指南。有关很多任何的低功耗蓝牙5.0的消息,可以看BLE指南。

BLE 权限


In order to use Bluetooth features in your application, you must declare
the Bluetooth permission BLUETOOTH. You need this permission to perform
any Bluetooth communication, such as requesting a connection, accepting
a connection, and transferring data.
为了在您的使用中使用蓝牙5.0特色,你不可以不要表明蓝牙5.0权限 BLUETOOTH
。你要此权限才能执行此外蓝牙( Bluetooth® )通讯,如:请求一个接连,接收一个接连,和传输数据。

If you want your app to initiate device discovery or manipulate
Bluetooth settings, you must also declare the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
permission. Note: If you use the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission, then you
must also have the BLUETOOTH permission.
要是您想要你的app启动设备发现或决定Bluetooth设置,你必须也要表明BLUETOOTH_ADMIN 权限。注意:假若您用了 BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
权限,则还必须有 BLUETOOTH 权限。

Declare the Bluetooth permission(s) in your application manifest file.
For example:
宣称蓝牙( Bluetooth® )权限在你的应用manifest文件,例如:

<uses-permission android:name=”android.permission.BLUETOOTH”/>
<uses-permission
android:name=”android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN”/>

If you want to declare that your app is available to BLE-capable devices
only, include the following in your app’s manifest:
若果你想要声明你的app仅襄助有BLE功用的装置,在您的app的manifest中填上如下内容:

<uses-feature android:name=”android.hardware.bluetooth_le”
android:required=”true”/>
However, if you want to make your app available to devices that don’t
support BLE, you should still include this element in your app’s
manifest, but set required=”false”. Then at run-time you can determine
BLE availability by using PackageManager.hasSystemFeature():
接下来,如果您想要你的app能够被不接济BLE的装备获得,你照样亟待包蕴这些元素在你的app的manifest文件中,可是,须要设置required为false。然后在您的代码运行时,你可以通过使用确认PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()方法来认同BLE是还是不是可收获。

// Use this check to determine whether BLE is supported on the device. Then
// you can selectively disable BLE-related features.
if (!getPackageManager().hasSystemFeature(PackageManager.FEATURE_BLUETOOTH_LE)) {
    Toast.makeText(this, R.string.ble_not_supported, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    finish();
}

Note: LE Beacons are often associated with location. In order to use
BluetoothLeScanner without a filter, you must request the user’s
permission by declaring either the ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION or
ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION permission in your app’s manifest file. Without
these permissions, scans won’t return any results.

留神:LE信标寻常与任务相关联。
为了在没有过滤器的动静下利用BluetoothLeScanner,您必须通过表明应用程序的清单文件中的ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION或ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION权限来呼吁用户的权力。

LINKS

[1].Cannot connect to BLE device on Raspberry
Pi
[2].Invalid file descriptor gatttool of bluez
5.32
[3].Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
[4].Reverse Engineering a Bluetooth Low Energy Light
Bulb
[5].Doing Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux
[6]开首驾驭Android,使能notify蓝牙( Bluetooth® )低功耗设备。.Tutorial: BLE Pairing the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B with
Hexiwear

home88一必发 6

@beautifulzzzz
智能硬件、物联网,热爱技术,关注产品
博客:http://blog.beautifulzzzz.com
园友交流群:414948975

GVR SDK
and NDK Release
Notes

For more information about Classic Bluetooth, see
the Bluetooth guide.
For more information about Bluetooth Low Energy, see the Bluetooth Low
Energy (BLE)
guide.

Setting Up BLE

设置BLE
Before your application can communicate over BLE, you need to verify
that BLE is supported on the device, and if so, ensure that it is
enabled. Note that this check is only necessary if
<uses-feature…/> is set to false.
在你利用可以通过BLE通讯从前,你必要证实这几个设备是不是扶助BLE,假若得以,确认BLE是使能的。需求专注的是唯有当<uses-feature…/>设置为false这几个是反省需要的

If BLE is not supported, then you should gracefully disable any BLE
features. If BLE is supported, but disabled, then you can request that
the user enable Bluetooth without leaving your application. This setup
is accomplished in two steps, using the BluetoothAdapter.
如果BLE不被协助,则你须求优雅的除能所有的BLE特性。倘诺BLE被扶助,可是被除能了,则你需求请求用户使能蓝牙( Bluetooth® )而不偏离的运用。该装置使用蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Adapter在多少个步骤中达成。

  1. Get the BluetoothAdapter
    获取BluetoothAdapter
    The BluetoothAdapter is required for any and all Bluetooth activity.
    The BluetoothAdapter represents the device’s own Bluetooth adapter
    (the Bluetooth radio). There’s one Bluetooth adapter for the entire
    system, and your application can interact with it using this object.
    The snippet below shows how to get the adapter. Note that this
    approach uses getSystemService() to return an instance of
    BluetoothManager, which is then used to get the adapter. Android 4.3
    (API Level 18) introduces BluetoothManager:
    装有的BluetoothActivity中都必要蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器。Bluetooth适配器表示了那一个装置自带的蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器(蓝牙( Bluetooth® )有线电)。整个系统有一个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器,你的采纳可以由此这一个目的和它交互。上边的代码片段体现了怎么收获这一个适配器。必要小心的是那一个办法应用getSystem瑟维斯()去获取BluetoothManager的一个实例,然后用于获取适配器。Android
    4.3(API Level 18)介绍了蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Manager。

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    ...
    // Initializes Bluetooth adapter.
    final BluetoothManager bluetoothManager =
            (BluetoothManager) getSystemService(Context.BLUETOOTH_SERVICE);
    mBluetoothAdapter = bluetoothManager.getAdapter();
    
  2. Enable Bluetooth
    使能蓝牙5.0
    Next, you need to ensure that Bluetooth is enabled. Call isEnabled()
    to check whether Bluetooth is currently enabled. If this method
    returns false, then Bluetooth is disabled. The following snippet
    checks whether Bluetooth is enabled. If it isn’t, the snippet
    displays an error prompting the user to go to Settings to enable
    Bluetooth:
    接下去,你须要认同蓝牙5.0是使能的。调用isEnable()去反省是不是蓝牙5.0脚下是还是不是使能。借使那几个艺术重返false,则蓝牙5.0是除能的。接下来的代码片段检查是或不是蓝牙5.0是是能的。借使没有使能,代码片段会显得一个用户去设置开启Bluetooth的谬误提醒。

    // Ensures Bluetooth is available on the device and it is enabled. If not,
    // displays a dialog requesting user permission to enable Bluetooth.
    if (mBluetoothAdapter == null || !mBluetoothAdapter.isEnabled()) {
        Intent enableBtIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE);
        startActivityForResult(enableBtIntent, REQUEST_ENABLE_BT);
    }
    

Note: The REQUEST_ENABLE_BT constant passed to
startActivityForResult(android.content.Intent, int) is a
locally-defined integer (which must be greater than 0) that the system
passes back to you in your onActivityResult(int, int,
android.content.Intent) implementation as the requestCode parameter.

注意:传送给startActivityForResult()的常量REQUEST_ENABLE_BT是一个地面定义的整数(必须大于0),这几个平头系统会促成为requestCode参数,在你的onActivityResult()方法中,回传给您。

http://www.apkmirror.com/apk/google-inc

蓝牙5.0 APIs 能够使得应用拥有下边成效:

Finding BLE Devices

寻找BLE设备

To find BLE devices, you use the startLeScan() method. This method takes
a BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback as a parameter. You must implement
this callback, because that is how scan results are returned. Because
scanning is battery-intensive, you should observe the following
guidelines:
要寻找BLE设备,你可以应用startLeScan()方法。那几个法子包括一个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Adapter.LeScanCallback作为参数。你必须求贯彻那么些回调,因为那是何等回到扫描结果的(因为扫描结果是经过这一个再次来到的)。因为扫描是电池密集型的,你必要依据以下的守则:

  • As soon as you find the desired device, stop scanning.
    假设你一找到了想要的设施,就停止扫描
  • Never scan on a loop, and set a time limit on your scan. A device
    that was previously available may have moved out of range, and
    continuing to scan drains the battery.
    切勿在循环里扫描,且要设置一个扫描时间限制。
    一个此前可以取得的装置可能已经移出了限制,持续围观消耗电池。

The following snippet shows how to start and stop a scan:
上面的代码片段展示了如何开首和停止扫描:

/**
 * Activity for scanning and displaying available BLE devices.
 */
public class DeviceScanActivity extends ListActivity {

    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private boolean mScanning;
    private Handler mHandler;

    // Stops scanning after 10 seconds.
    private static final long SCAN_PERIOD = 10000;
    ...
    private void scanLeDevice(final boolean enable) {
        if (enable) {
            // Stops scanning after a pre-defined scan period.
            mHandler.postDelayed(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    mScanning = false;
                    mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
                }
            }, SCAN_PERIOD);

            mScanning = true;
            mBluetoothAdapter.startLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        } else {
            mScanning = false;
            mBluetoothAdapter.stopLeScan(mLeScanCallback);
        }
        ...
    }
...
}

If you want to scan for only specific types of peripherals, you can
instead call startLeScan(UUID[], BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback),
providing an array of UUID objects that specify the GATT services your
app supports.
假定你想扫描特定类型的外设,你可以替换调用startLeScan(UUID[],
BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback),提供一个特定的你的app支持的GATT服务UUID设备数组。

Here is an implementation of the BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback, which
is the interface used to deliver BLE scan results:
此处有一个蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Adapter.LeScanCallback的落实,它是一个接口,用来传输BLE扫描结果:

private LeDeviceListAdapter mLeDeviceListAdapter;
...
// Device scan callback.
private BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback mLeScanCallback =
        new BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback() {
    @Override
    public void onLeScan(final BluetoothDevice device, int rssi,
            byte[] scanRecord) {
        runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
           @Override
           public void run() {
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.addDevice(device);
               mLeDeviceListAdapter.notifyDataSetChanged();
           }
       });
   }
};

Note: You can only scan for Bluetooth LE devices or scan for Classic
Bluetooth devices, as described in Bluetooth. You cannot scan for both
Bluetooth LE and classic devices at the same time.

只顾:你可以扫描低耗电蓝牙5.0设备或经典蓝牙设备,如蓝牙5.0所述。你无法而且扫视低功耗Bluetooth设备和经典蓝牙( Bluetooth® )设备。

com.google.vr.vrcore

1.对此任何的蓝牙5.0设备的围观(包罗BLE设备)

Connecting to a GATT Server

连接GATT服务器

The first step in interacting with a BLE device is connecting to it—
more specifically, connecting to the GATT server on the device. To
connect to a GATT server on a BLE device, you use the connectGatt()
method. This method takes three parameters: a Context object,
autoConnect (boolean indicating whether to automatically connect to the
BLE device as soon as it becomes available), and a reference to a
BluetoothGattCallback:
与BLE设备的互相的率先步是连接受它-更具象的说,连接在这些BLE设备上的GATT服务器。为了连接上在这些BLE设备上的GATT服务器,你可以使用connectGatt()方法。这几个方法有两个参数:一个上下文对象,是不是自动连接(一个布尔值,注解只要这么些BLE设备是足以博得的,是或不是自动的连接上它),一个指向BluetoothGattCallback的引用。

mBluetoothGatt = device.connectGatt(this, false, mGattCallback);

This connects to the GATT server hosted by the BLE device, and returns a
BluetoothGatt instance, which you can then use to conduct GATT client
operations. The caller (the Android app) is the GATT client. The
BluetoothGattCallback is used to deliver results to the client, such as
connection status, as well as any further GATT client operations.
那会连接受由BLE设备管理的GATT服务器,并赶回一个BluetoothGatt实例,然后你可以行使它来展开GATT客户端操作。调用者(Android
app)是GATT客户端。BluetoothGattCallback用来传送结果给客户端,例如连接景况,以及任何更进一步的GATT客户端操作。

In this example, the BLE app provides an activity
(DeviceControlActivity) to connect, display data, and display GATT
services and characteristics supported by the device. Based on user
input, this activity communicates with a Service called
BluetoothLeService, which interacts with the BLE device via the Android
BLE API:
那个事例中,这么些BLE应用提供一个运动(DeviceControlActivity)用于连接装置,展现由装备提供的数据,GATT服务和特色。基于用户输入,那些运动与一个名为蓝牙LeService的劳动通信,该服务通过Android
BLE API与BLE设备进行交互:

// A service that interacts with the BLE device via the Android BLE API.
public class BluetoothLeService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = BluetoothLeService.class.getSimpleName();

    private BluetoothManager mBluetoothManager;
    private BluetoothAdapter mBluetoothAdapter;
    private String mBluetoothDeviceAddress;
    private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
    private int mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;

    private static final int STATE_DISCONNECTED = 0;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTING = 1;
    private static final int STATE_CONNECTED = 2;

    public final static String ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED";
    public final static String ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED";
    public final static String ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE";
    public final static String EXTRA_DATA =
            "com.example.bluetooth.le.EXTRA_DATA";

    public final static UUID UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT =
            UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT);

    // Various callback methods defined by the BLE API.
    private final BluetoothGattCallback mGattCallback =
            new BluetoothGattCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onConnectionStateChange(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status,
                int newState) {
            String intentAction;
            if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_CONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_CONNECTED;
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
                Log.i(TAG, "Connected to GATT server.");
                Log.i(TAG, "Attempting to start service discovery:" +
                        mBluetoothGatt.discoverServices());

            } else if (newState == BluetoothProfile.STATE_DISCONNECTED) {
                intentAction = ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED;
                mConnectionState = STATE_DISCONNECTED;
                Log.i(TAG, "Disconnected from GATT server.");
                broadcastUpdate(intentAction);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // New services discovered
        public void onServicesDiscovered(BluetoothGatt gatt, int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED);
            } else {
                Log.w(TAG, "onServicesDiscovered received: " + status);
            }
        }

        @Override
        // Result of a characteristic read operation
        public void onCharacteristicRead(BluetoothGatt gatt,
                BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic,
                int status) {
            if (status == BluetoothGatt.GATT_SUCCESS) {
                broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
            }
        }
     ...
    };
...
}

When a particular callback is triggered, it calls the appropriate
broadcastUpdate() helper method and passes it an action. Note that the
data parsing in this section is performed in accordance with the
Bluetooth Heart Rate Measurement profile specifications:
当特定的回调被触发时,它调用相应的broadcastUpdate()帮忙方法并传递一个动作。请小心,本节中的数据解析是基于蓝牙( Bluetooth® )心率测量配置文件规范推行的:

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

private void broadcastUpdate(final String action,
                             final BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    final Intent intent = new Intent(action);

    // This is special handling for the Heart Rate Measurement profile. Data
    // parsing is carried out as per profile specifications.
    if (UUID_HEART_RATE_MEASUREMENT.equals(characteristic.getUuid())) {
        int flag = characteristic.getProperties();
        int format = -1;
        if ((flag & 0x01) != 0) {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT16;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT16.");
        } else {
            format = BluetoothGattCharacteristic.FORMAT_UINT8;
            Log.d(TAG, "Heart rate format UINT8.");
        }
        final int heartRate = characteristic.getIntValue(format, 1);
        Log.d(TAG, String.format("Received heart rate: %d", heartRate));
        intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, String.valueOf(heartRate));
    } else {
        // For all other profiles, writes the data formatted in HEX.
        final byte[] data = characteristic.getValue();
        if (data != null && data.length > 0) {
            final StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder(data.length);
            for(byte byteChar : data)
                stringBuilder.append(String.format("%02X ", byteChar));
            intent.putExtra(EXTRA_DATA, new String(data) + "\n" +
                    stringBuilder.toString());
        }
    }
    sendBroadcast(intent);
}

Back in DeviceControlActivity, these events are handled by a
BroadcastReceiver:
归来DeviceControlActivity,这么些事件都被一个BroadcastReceiver接收处理:

// Handles various events fired by the Service.
// ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED: connected to a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED: disconnected from a GATT server.
// ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED: discovered GATT services.
// ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE: received data from the device. This can be a
// result of read or notification operations.
private final BroadcastReceiver mGattUpdateReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {
    @Override
    public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
        final String action = intent.getAction();
        if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_CONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = true;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.connected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_GATT_DISCONNECTED.equals(action)) {
            mConnected = false;
            updateConnectionState(R.string.disconnected);
            invalidateOptionsMenu();
            clearUI();
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.
                ACTION_GATT_SERVICES_DISCOVERED.equals(action)) {
            // Show all the supported services and characteristics on the
            // user interface.
            displayGattServices(mBluetoothLeService.getSupportedGattServices());
        } else if (BluetoothLeService.ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE.equals(action)) {
            displayData(intent.getStringExtra(BluetoothLeService.EXTRA_DATA));
        }
    }
};

com.google.android.vr.home

2.为配对的蓝牙设备查询当地蓝牙( Bluetooth® )适配器

Reading BLE Attributes

读取BLE属性

Once your Android app has connected to a GATT server and discovered
services, it can read and write attributes, where supported. For
example, this snippet iterates through the server’s services and
characteristics and displays them in the UI:
比方你的Android应用连接到GATT服务器并发现了劳务,倘使GATT服务器辅助,它就足以读取和写入属性了。例如:这一片段代码遍历了这一个服务器的服务和特征,,并将其出示在UI中:

public class DeviceControlActivity extends Activity {
    ...
    // Demonstrates how to iterate through the supported GATT
    // Services/Characteristics.
    // In this sample, we populate the data structure that is bound to the
    // ExpandableListView on the UI.
    private void displayGattServices(List<BluetoothGattService> gattServices) {
        if (gattServices == null) return;
        String uuid = null;
        String unknownServiceString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_service);
        String unknownCharaString = getResources().
                getString(R.string.unknown_characteristic);
        ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattServiceData =
                new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
        ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>> gattCharacteristicData
                = new ArrayList<ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>>();
        mGattCharacteristics =
                new ArrayList<ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>>();

        // Loops through available GATT Services.
        for (BluetoothGattService gattService : gattServices) {
            HashMap<String, String> currentServiceData =
                    new HashMap<String, String>();
            uuid = gattService.getUuid().toString();
            currentServiceData.put(
                    LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.
                            lookup(uuid, unknownServiceString));
            currentServiceData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
            gattServiceData.add(currentServiceData);

            ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>> gattCharacteristicGroupData =
                    new ArrayList<HashMap<String, String>>();
            List<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> gattCharacteristics =
                    gattService.getCharacteristics();
            ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic> charas =
                    new ArrayList<BluetoothGattCharacteristic>();
           // Loops through available Characteristics.
            for (BluetoothGattCharacteristic gattCharacteristic :
                    gattCharacteristics) {
                charas.add(gattCharacteristic);
                HashMap<String, String> currentCharaData =
                        new HashMap<String, String>();
                uuid = gattCharacteristic.getUuid().toString();
                currentCharaData.put(
                        LIST_NAME, SampleGattAttributes.lookup(uuid,
                                unknownCharaString));
                currentCharaData.put(LIST_UUID, uuid);
                gattCharacteristicGroupData.add(currentCharaData);
            }
            mGattCharacteristics.add(charas);
            gattCharacteristicData.add(gattCharacteristicGroupData);
         }
    ...
    }
...
}

Google
Inc. Daydream
(Daydream)

3.建立RFCOMM channels/sockets.

Receiving GATT Notifications

Google
Inc. Google VR Services
(Daydream)

4.老是在其余设施上点名的sockets

接收GATT通知

It’s common for BLE apps to ask to be notified when a particular
characteristic changes on the device. This snippet shows how to set a
notification for a characteristic, using the
setCharacteristicNotification() method:
当设备上一个一定的特色爆发转移时,BLE应用去须要被通报很广阔。这段代码体现了哪些通过利用setCharacteristicNotification()方法,去为一个特征设置一个公告:

private BluetoothGatt mBluetoothGatt;
BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic;
boolean enabled;
...
mBluetoothGatt.setCharacteristicNotification(characteristic, enabled);
...
BluetoothGattDescriptor descriptor = characteristic.getDescriptor(
        UUID.fromString(SampleGattAttributes.CLIENT_CHARACTERISTIC_CONFIG));
descriptor.setValue(BluetoothGattDescriptor.ENABLE_NOTIFICATION_VALUE);
mBluetoothGatt.writeDescriptor(descriptor);

Once notifications are enabled for a characteristic, an
onCharacteristicChanged() callback is triggered if the characteristic
changes on the remote device:
一旦一个表征被使能通告,如若远程设备上的那些特点爆发了改变,一个onCharacteristicChanged()回调被触发。

@Override
// Characteristic notification
public void onCharacteristicChanged(BluetoothGatt gatt,
        BluetoothGattCharacteristic characteristic) {
    broadcastUpdate(ACTION_DATA_AVAILABLE, characteristic);
}

What is
Google
Daydream

5.与其它设备之间数据传输

Closing the Client App

Daydream Performance
HUD

6.与BLE设备调换。比如类似传感器,心率监视器,健身设备,等等

关闭客户端app

Once your app has finished using a BLE device, it should call close() so
the system can release resources appropriately:
若是你的应用程序完毕使用BLE设备,它应当调用close(),以便系统可以正确释放资源:

public void close() {
    if (mBluetoothGatt == null) {
        return;
    }
    mBluetoothGatt.close();
    mBluetoothGatt = null;
}

后记:本文翻译自google开发者网站。链接如下:
https://developer.android.google.cn/guide/topics/connectivity/bluetooth-le.html
迎接转发,但请珍重小编工作,留下本文后记
作者:Jaesoon
邮箱:jayyuz@163.com
日期:2017-09-17

Daydream
Controller手柄数据的辨析

7.作为GATTclient或GATT服务端

How do I
fix my Daydream
controller

选拔这一个APIs来终结蓝牙之间的调换,一个应用程序必须声明BLUETOOTH权力。对于一些极度的功效。如请求设备发现,也务必BLUETOOTH_ADMIN权限。

Google
Daydream Controller
Teardown

提醒:不是全部的Android设备都提供了蓝牙作用。

Daydream
controller : Comprehensive
guide

The Bluetooth APIs let applications:

Use the
Daydream View controller and
headset

  • Scan for other Bluetooth devices (including BLE devices).
  • Query the local Bluetooth adapter for paired Bluetooth devices.
  • Establish RFCOMM channels/sockets.
  • Connect to specified sockets on other devices.
  • Transfer data to and from other devices.
  • Communicate with BLE devices, such as proximity sensors, heart rate
    monitors, fitness devices, and so on.
  • Act as a GATT client or a GATT server (BLE).

谷歌(Google)Daydream
VR平台应用要求:怎么着规划VR应用

To perform Bluetooth communication using these APIs, an application must
declare the BLUETOOTH permission. Some additional functionality, such
as requesting device discovery, also requires
the BLUETOOTH_ADMIN permission.

 

Note: Not all Android-powered devices provide Bluetooth
functionality.

Algorithm

接口:

BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback
:用来提供LE扫描结果的回调接口

BluetoothProfile:Bluetooth
Profiles的公共APIs

BluetoothProfile.ServiceListener:蓝牙5.0Profile
IPC client与service的连接和断开时的一个通报接口

Conversion
Quaternion to
Euler

Interfaces


BluetoothAdapter.LeScanCallback Callback interface used to deliver LE scan results. 
BluetoothProfile Public APIs for the Bluetooth Profiles. 
BluetoothProfile.ServiceListener An interface for notifying BluetoothProfile IPC clients when they have been connected or disconnected to the service. 

Conversion
Euler to
Quaternion

类:

BluetoothA2dp:这么些类提供控制BluetoothA2DP profile的公共APIs

home88一必发 ,BluetoothAdapter:代表当地设备的蓝牙adapter.
BluetoothAssignedNumbers:蓝牙( Bluetooth® )分配号码

BluetoothClass:代表一个Bluetooth类。它形容叙述了设施的相似特征(characteristics)和能力(capabilities)

BluetoothClass.Device:定义全部设施类的常量

BluetoothClass.Device.Major:定义全体关键配备类的常量

BluetoothClass.Service:定义全体服务类的常量

BluetoothDevice:代表一个远程蓝牙5.0设备

=============================================================================================

BluetoothGatt:蓝牙GATT
Profile的公共APIs

BluetoothGattCallback:那一个抽象类用于落到实处BluetoothGatt回调

BluetoothGattCharacteristic:代表一个蓝牙GATT Characteristic.

                                              一个GATT
Characteristic是用来协会一个GATT
service,BluetoothGattService的着力数据元素

BluetoothGattDescriptor:代表一个BluetoothGATT Descriptor.

                                           GATT Descriptor包涵一个GATT
characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic的附加音信和属性.

Classes


BluetoothA2dp This class provides the public APIs to control the Bluetooth A2DP profile. 
BluetoothAdapter Represents the local device Bluetooth adapter. 
BluetoothAssignedNumbers Bluetooth Assigned Numbers. 
BluetoothClass Represents a Bluetooth class, which describes general characteristics and capabilities of a device. 
BluetoothClass.Device Defines all device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Device.Major Defines all major device class constants. 
BluetoothClass.Service Defines all service class constants. 
BluetoothDevice Represents a remote Bluetooth device. 
BluetoothGatt Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile. 
BluetoothGattCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGatt callbacks. 
BluetoothGattCharacteristic Represents a Bluetooth GATT Characteristic

A GATT characteristic is a basic data element used to construct a GATT service,BluetoothGattService

BluetoothGattDescriptor Represents a Bluetooth GATT Descriptor

GATT Descriptors contain additional information and attributes of a GATT characteristic,BluetoothGattCharacteristic

BluetoothGattServer Public API for the Bluetooth GATT Profile server role. 
BluetoothGattServerCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothGattServer callbacks. 
BluetoothGattService Represents a Bluetooth GATT Service

Gatt Service contains a collection of BluetoothGattCharacteristic, as well as referenced services. 

BluetoothHeadset Public API for controlling the Bluetooth Headset Service. 
BluetoothHealth Public API for Bluetooth Health Profile. 
BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration The Bluetooth Health Application Configuration that is used in conjunction with the BluetoothHealthclass. 
BluetoothHealthCallback This abstract class is used to implement BluetoothHealth callbacks. 
BluetoothManager High level manager used to obtain an instance of an BluetoothAdapter and to conduct overall Bluetooth Management. 
BluetoothServerSocket A listening Bluetooth socket. 
BluetoothSocket A connected or connecting Bluetooth socket. 

BluetoothGattServer:BluetoothGATT Profileserver角色的公共APIs.

BluetoothGattServerCallback:这一个抽象类用于落到实处BluetoothGattServer回调.

BluetoothGattService:代表一个BluetoothGATT 瑟维斯.

================================================================================

BluetoothHeadset:控制蓝牙5.0动铁耳机(Headset)服务的公共API.

BluetoothHealth:蓝牙Health
Profile的公共API.

BluetoothHealthAppConfiguration:The
Bluetooth Health Application
Configuration(配置)用来与BluetoothHealth类结合.

BluetoothHealthCallback:用于落实BluetoothHealth回调的抽象类

BluetoothManager:用来取得BluetoothAdapter的实例的总管,举办周详的Bluetooth管理

BluetoothServerSocket:一个监听蓝牙( Bluetooth® )的socket

BluetoothSocket:一个已两次三番或正在连接的蓝牙5.0socket.

 

ATW

Timewarp

Asynchronous
timewarp

How Does
Time Warping Work

Difference_between_ATW_ASW_and_Reprojection 

 

Bluetooth

Bluetooth Core
Specification

HID-over-GATT

NordicSemiconductor

Dialog-semiconductor

SmartBond™
DA14681

Android
Bluetooth Low
Energy

Nordic SDK and
Documentation

Calculate
throughput for a BLE
link

Introduction to
Bluetooth Low
Energy

Android
Lollipop: Bluetooth LE
Matures

Bluetooth Low
Energy vs. Classic
Bluetooth

Getting
Started with Bluetooth Low
Energy

Maximizing BLE
Throughput on iOS and
Android

How
different BLE packet types influence
throughput

Analysis
of Latency Performance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
Networks

FTS4BT™
Bluetooth® Protocol Analyzer and Packet
Sniffer

CPAS-11(Frontline_16.10.12321.12610)

 

Latency

Front
Buffer
Rendering

Reducing
latency in mobile VR by using single buffered strip
rendering

The
importance of fine-grained GPU preemption support for
VR

 

Tools

dotPeek

 

Touch

IQS525-B000

 

Unity

Unity
Editor and Android Runtime for
Daydream

Unity
Download

GVR-Unity-SDK

Unity3d
Quaternion

Unity优化技巧

四元数(Quaternion)和旋转

 

Qualcomm

基于骁龙
VR SDK的VR图形优化

 

EGL

EGL10

Tracer
for OpenGL
ES

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